Stem Cell Derived Pacemaker Cells Could Help Weak Hearts Keep the Beat

Do you know how many times our heart beats in an average lifetime? It beats over 2.5 billion times. Do you know which part of the organ is responsible for the heartbeats in unison? It’s the sinoatrial node or SAN, which acts like the captain of the ship and dictates other parts of the heart to follow the rhythm. SAN is the natural pacemaker of the heart, which is built of a set of specialized heart muscle cells. It sends signals to the other parts of the organ to beat in a certain rate through an electrical signal.

A number of factors such as aging or inherited mutations often lead to disturb the natural pacemaker function of the SAN, which results in slower heart rate and poor blood circulation. The optimum treatment to address these problems is installing an artificial electronic pacemaker into the heart. However, artificial pacemakers have a few disadvantages as well. They are mentioned below:

· They are unable to react to hormone signals in the heart.

· The implantation may also carry a risk of infection.

· There is no way to adjust the pacemaker in order to match a child’s natural growing heart.

· The artificial pacemaker’s battery life is 7 years. So after its due course, another surgery is needed to replace it with a new one.

Considering all the drawbacks of an artificial pacemaker, a Canadian research team at the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine in Toronto is trying the build a stem cell-derived pacemaker that would be an ideal alternative to the natural system. They are aiming at transforming the embryonic stem cells into pacemaker cells so that they can naturally receive and give electrical heart signals.

There have been many researches and studies around artificial pacemaker with stem cells. But this research is special because it focuses on creating SAN pacemaker cells from the stem cells whereas other studies involve creating various types of cardiomyocytes.

Earlier in 2015, another team created SAN-like pacemaker cells from stem cells but they permanently inserted the gene into the DNA of the cells, which may lead to tumor and thus is not suitable for clinical procedures. The McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine team has relied on a process that is gene insertion-free. Stephanie Protze, the first author in the report, said, “It’s tricky, you have to determine the right signaling molecules, at the right concentration, at the right time to stimulate the stem cells.”

The research shows that 90% of the SAN cells that are derived from stem cells have the natural pacemaker functionality. That means that these cells can function as a natural pacemaker. This is an interesting step towards treating people with heartbeat problems.

The team had implemented the method on a rat module and now they are eager to implement the new technique to create pacemaker cells from human stem cells. This may be a time-consuming process and may take a longer time to come down to any conclusion, but the approach will enable the team to study heartbeat disorders and thereby to come up with drugs that can improve the condition.

Supplements That Are Good for Heart Health

It is not a secret that vitamins are essential for our overall health. To get the required amount of vitamins it is important to maintain a well-balanced diet. However, nutrients we consume from our daily diet may not be sufficient and our body may need additional supplementation to maintain its proper functioning. Supplements are not intended to treat diseases, but are of value to supply body with enough essential nutrients and vitamins to improve health when taken properly under doctor’s control.

Want to keep your heart healthy and reduce the risk for heart disease? Then supplement your body with these nutrients and pills that are good for your heart health.

Aspirin – an anti-inflammatory drug that helps thin the blood, making it more difficult for the body to form clots. One 80 mg aspirin tablet daily should be taken by anyone who is over 50 and has such risk factors as a family history of heart attack, high total cholesterol level, sedentary lifestyle, previous cardiac event or hypertension.

Omega-3 fatty acid is helpful in balancing blood lipids. Fish oil helps prevent heart attacks because it slows down the build-up of plaques in the arteries, promotes blood vessel dilation, reduces stiffness and improves vascular function. A serving of oily fish like mackerel, salmon and tuna or 1,000 mg in capsule form daily is helpful for people with high triglycerides and those at risk of heart disease.

Vitamin D is essential because it helps the body to properly absorb all the beneficial aspects of zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium and phosphate. Doctors recommend taking this supplement for treating high cholesterol and hypertension – issues that affect blood vessels and overall health. Dairy products, fish oils, beef liver, egg yolks, regular exposure to sunlight or 400 to 800 IU a day will help maintain consistent levels of this vitamin.

Coenzyme Q 10 helps the body generate energy via aerobic cellular respiration and is known to improve muscle function as well as increase heart contractility. It also fights free radicals, promotes arterial health and helps maintain healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels. 100-200 mg a day is especially beneficial for older individuals, patients with heart failure, hypercholesterolemia and those taking statins.

Niacin or vitamin B3 is naturally involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It supports healthy cholesterol levels and is a potent vasodilator. It is effective at high doses, which must be taken under doctor’s supervision like any other vitamin supplement for heart, and is recommended when there is a genetic predisposition to heart disease, low HDL levels, atherosclerosis issues and previously suffered cardiac arrest.

Understanding The Different Types Of Common Heart Disease

Any disease related to blood vessels and heart is known as heart disease. However, this is an umbrella term that encompasses many conditions.

Some of the most common types of heart disease are as follows:


In this condition, the walls of arteries constrict due to buildup of plaque. As a result, blood cannot flow easily through the arteries. Hence, your heart has to work harder to pump blood so that it can reach every corner of your body. Sometimes, plaque can break from the arterial wall, obstructing the flow of blood. This can result in a stroke or an attack.

Heart Attack

If blood flow to the heart is blocked due to a blood clot or plaque, the affected region begins to get progressively weaker. This is a heart attack. Typically, if you suffer your first attack, you will have to make certain lifestyle changes so that you can enjoy a normal and productive life. In addition, you may have to take medication to prevent further damage to this organ.

Ischemic Stroke

This is the most common type of stroke wherein the blood vessel supplying blood to the brain gets blocked due to a blood clot. When this happens, the affected part of the brain begins to die due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. As a result, it will prevent you from performing functions, like talking and walking, that you could do before the event occurred.

Another form of stroke is hemorrhagic stroke, which is common in people with untreated, severe hypertension. Here, the blood vessel in the brain bursts, causing bleeding or hemorrhage. The brain has the ability to repair itself and many times, as the cells repair, body functions improve. However, if too many brains cells have necrotized, the damage will be permanent.

Heart Failure

This refers to the inability to pump blood optimally. Hence, adequate amounts of oxygen and blood do not reach vital organs. This condition tends to worsen with time and hence, it requires prompt treatment.


If your heart is beating too fast, irregularly or too slow, you are suffering from arrhythmia. Any abnormality in the rhythm affects the working of the organ, and it will be unable to pump out sufficient amounts of blood to meet the requirements of the body.

Treating Heart Disease

Depending on the severity of the condition, doctors prescribe the treatment. It can be as simple as making a few lifestyle changes or taking medications; and as complex as undergoing a major surgery. The treatment looks to minimize the damage caused by the condition while reducing chances of future cardiovascular events.

If you or a loved one suffers from heart disease, it is important you consult a qualified specialist. Trinity Medical Group offers state-of-the-art diagnostics and treatment procedures so that you can lead a normal and full life within your limitations. Contact Trinity Medical Group today for consultation. Also check out our new page on Heart Disease.

Ten Causes of High Blood Pressure

Because of our growing population and the ever increasing of dementia it is especially important for us to preserve our overall health and well-being. One of the best ways for us to do so it is to regulate our blood pressure.

However, before we can regulate our blood pressure, we must become aware of some of the major causes of it. Many of these causes can be avoided with a bit of awareness and self-control as well as a commitment to our overall health and well-being.

Here are the ten of the main causes of blood pressure.

1. Excess salt intake in our diet is a major cause of hypertension. Excess salt intake tightens the blood vessels and increases the resistance to the flow of blood, resulting in hypertension.

2. Excess sugar also causes blood pressure problems. The sugar that we consume when we drink too much pop, eat too much cereal or too many cakes biscuits or muffins can cause difficulties for us.

3. Obesity also causes high blood pressure. Obesity is a growing problem in our western world. Excess fat squeezes the major blood vessels in the body which in turn causes hypertension.

4. Smoking contributes to hypertension. So, we should think of getting rid of our nicotine habit, if we have one. With every puff of smoke you take, your blood turns a little less red and a little blue, depriving your brain of the energy it needs to function properly.

5. Excessive and persistent alcohol intake can lead to higher blood pressure. Excessive drinking is defined by the medical literature as two or more drinks a day.

6. A sedentary lifestyle may be increasingly imposed on us by modern life’s demands and the wired world. We certainly sit a lot more than our ancestors did. And this is increasing our blood pressure and obesity rates at an alarming rate every year.

7. Insufficient or poor quality sleep can also contribute to high blood pressure. Sleeping in long enough to feel rested is not a luxury. It is an opportunity for the brain to rejuvenate itself and for the proper blood supply to reach our brains.

8. Persistent loneliness, high anxiety and depression can also cause hypertension. These conditions can impair our mind and the flow of the blood to our heart.

9. Excess stress can cause problems too. This is because when we are stressed our arteries get overworked and clots and clogs are possible over the long term.

10. Noise also can cause an increase in heart rate. This is especially the case for noise that is irritating to the ears.

By trying to avoid some of these causes of stress, you will be working towards reducing your blood pressure. And this is so important for overall quality of life. This is because without an effectively functioning heart, you cannot have a good quality of life.

Watch Out for the Heart Attack Signs

More often than not, you tend to take the occasional chest clutches seriously because as per the societal notion, you think it may further lead to a cardiac arrest. And this is where you get yourself wrong. Not all the heart problems happen in your chest, there can be other alarming symptoms in other parts of your body too, that are directly related to your heart, especially if you are overweight, a diabetic, have high cholesterol, or high blood pressure. This article enlists four problems you should watch out for to keep heart-related issues at bay. Read on!

Upset Stomach, Nausea and Indigestion

If you have been feeling sick in your stomach for a longer period of time, and having heartburns periodically, the symptoms call for a doctor’s attention immediately! Belching, vomiting, and persistent discomfort in your belly can ultimately lead to a heart attack as well. These are the less typical heart attack symptoms, and women are more likely to report such cases. A stabbing pain in the upper or middle of the abdomen for more than a few minutes can lead to a heart attack without even giving you chance to guess what it’s like to be struck by a chronic ailment.


Feeling dizzy and lightheaded is another disturbing symptom related to heart problems. What about feeling faint? Usually, such instances occur when the blood supply to your brain has dropped to the lowest possible level. But little do you care to know that it has happened because your heart rate is abnormal, that your heart can’t pump the blood adequately maybe due to the narrowing of a valve, or a rapid yet temporary drop in the blood pressure. A feeling of uneasiness, or dizziness while standing up too fast, all indicates that your heart is on the verge of a failure and you need to consult a cardiologist soon.

Unexplained Weakness

Do you get tired easily in doing simple chores of the day? Does your body give up even while engaging in activities that you loved to attend to before? All of this calls for the attention of a cardiologist immediately! Having difficulty in performing everyday chores such as climbing stairs, walking, carrying groceries indicates a heart failure. An increasing fatigue is a result of weak muscles and tissues that are unable to function well because the blood pumping ability of the heart has reduced.

Cough Producing White or Pink Mucus

A long-lasting cough producing pink or white colored mucus is downright related to the heart problems. Coughing up foamy mucus indicates you are falling short of life as your heart is worsening quickly. However, this happens in the case of sudden heart failures causing the fluid to build up in lungs eventually leading to shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, and coughing every now and then. Most of the patients die because of congestive heart attacks due to ignorance. It is therefore, very important to contact a cardiologist immediately after coughing up pink mucus.

Wrapping Up

If you have noticed some unusual changes in your body, feel choked, or find yourself in an uncomfortable state, it’s time to contact a specialist. If diagnosed with a heart failure which isn’t very easy to fix, you can only make some simple lifestyle changes to reduce the risks in future.

Primus Cardiac Center in New Delhi, India, offers superlative heart care services, expert suggestions, and a comprehensive range of cardiac treatments.

The moment you figure out that there’s surely something wrong with your heart, you just can’t ignore the signs. I, Rahul, one of the authors in health and fitness, India, will shed some light on why there’s a need to address your heart related issues, and make you aware about the reputable heart centers of India along with the best cardiologists in town.

How Does Fibre Protect Your Heart?

What is Fibre?

There are two types of fibre- soluble and insoluble but most fibre-rich foods contain some of both. It is also considered either dietary or functional. The dietary kind of fibre is the indigestible part of plants that we eat, like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, beans and nuts. This is obtained naturally from whole foods. The functional kind of fibre is extracted or prepared in a lab. It’s the type of fibre that is found in supplements or fibre-enriched foods.

Experts say that it’s best to aim for a balanced diet rich with plenty of fibre-laden foods. According to them, it is the whole pattern that seems to have an effect so it is hard to pick out exact foods as food is a complex thing.
Heart-Health Perks

Fibre is mostly associated with a healthy digestive system, but research has shown that it can do a lot more than just keep you regular. Scientists are still trying to figure out how exactly fibre works in the body. Some ways by which it helps your heart are given below:

Lowers cholesterol: Soluble fibre reduces both bad (LDL) and overall cholesterol by binding with cholesterol particles in the digestive system and by driving them out of the body before they are absorbed.

Protects against strokes and diabetes: Stroke and diabetes lead to an increased risk of heart diseases. Fibre-rich whole grains lower the risk of a stroke by up to 36% and the risk of type 2 diabetes by up to 30%, as per research.

Reduces blood pressure: In another study, researchers put some people on a high-fibre diet that included lots of whole wheat and whole oats. After 12 weeks they found that the participants had a drop in blood and pulse pressure.

Encourages a healthy weight: Fibre can also become a weight loss weapon as it keeps you full by staving off hunger for a long time.

Longevity: All these benefits add up not only to better heart health but also to a longer life. In a study, researchers had observed a group of people for 9 years. They came to this conclusion that eating lots of fibre lowered the risk of early death among men and women.

Experts say that women under the age of 50 years must get about 25 grams of fibre a day and men must get about 38 grams of fibre. Knowing how fibre guards your heart, you must eat a balanced diet comprising of fibre rich foods like whole grains, beans, nuts, fruits and vegetables and other nutrients on a regular basis to stay healthy always.

How Heart Disease and Oral Health Are Connected

Many have likely heard from their dentist or others how oral health is essential for one’s overall health, with it being impossible for one to be totally isolated from the other. As of recent calculations, over 80 percent of Americans live with periodontal disease, with many usually never receiving a formal diagnosis.

This could be because a patient’s teeth might feel fine, thus he or she avoids the dentist, and doctor’s visits are rarely focused on a patient’s oral health. However, patients may be surprised to learn there could be a couple of links between heart disease and oral health.

For instance, recent studies indicate that if someone has mild or advanced gum disease, he or she has a greater chance of developing heart disease compared to someone who has healthy gums. As well, oral health can provide warning signs for doctors on a variety of conditions and diseases, such as those involving the heart.

How are They Related?

Heart disease and oral health are connected due to bacteria as well as other germs spreading from the mouth to different parts of the body through the bloodstream. If they spread to the heart, these bacteria could attach to any area with damage, thereby causing inflammation.

This could lead to illnesses like endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart’s inner lining. As well, other conditions like stroke or clogged arteries (atherosclerosis) have been linked with inflammation that is caused by bacteria of the mouth.

Which Patients are at Risk?

Individuals with long-term gum conditions-gingivitis, advanced periodontal disease-are the most prone to heart disease brought on by oral health, especially if it continues to be unmanaged or undiagnosed. The bacteria from gum infections can pass into the bloodstream and attach to blood vessels, thereby increasing one’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

However, even without clear gum inflammation, poor oral hygiene in and of itself has the risk of causing gum disease, the bacteria of which could also get into the bloodstream and cause raised C-reactive protein-a sign of inflammation within blood vessels, which increases the risk of developing heart disease and even stroke.


To prevent the risk of heart disease, patients can start by avoiding the onset of gum disease. Some common symptoms include the following:

  • Swollen, red gums that are sore to touch
  • Bleeding gums during eating, brushing, or flossing
  • Pus and other symptoms of infection around the teeth and gums
  • Receded gums
  • Bad breath (halitosis) or a bad taste
  • Teeth that feel loose or like they’re moving away from other teeth

Preventative MeasuresRegular dental exams and good oral hygiene are the best ways of protecting yourself from developing gum disease. This includes brushing twice per day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and a fluoride toothpaste as well as flossing at least once daily.

With the rising costs of dental care, seniors need to consider senior discount dental plans to avoid health problems that may arise due to poor oral health. For more information, please visit Wellness Dental Plan today.

What Are Cardiac Problems? Treatments and Surgery Options

What are Cardiac problems?
Cardiac problems refer to disorders, diseases or malfunctioning of the heart and its supporting blood delivery system (the veins and arteries – blood vessels).

The cardiac problems are categorized into:

Electrical cardiac problems are a result of a defective electrical system which controls the heartbeat. This results in the heart beating significantly faster or abnormally slower. It also results in the heart beats becoming infrequent or unsteady. At times, serious irregular heartbeats (such as arrhythmia) are known to develop into severe heart problems, including cardiac arrest.

Circulatory cardiac problems are related to the blood circulation system of the body. In this type of cardiac disorder, the patient suffers from high blood pressure and coronary artery disease (obstruction in passageways in the heart). These are known to result in stroke, heart attack and even be fatal if left undiagnosed and untreated for long.

Structural cardiac disorders affect the structure of the heart, including birth defects, cardiac muscle issues or valve malfunctioning.

What are the types of Cardiac Treatments?
There are a large variety of cardiac treatments available today. These are mostly surgical procedures (conventional and minimally invasive) that are aimed at treating the cause of the heart problems.

These are some of the most commonly performed cardiac treatment procedures:

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
The CABG surgery is the most common treatment for circulatory cardiac disorders. As coronary heart disease is caused due to the accumulation of plaque (hardened waxy substance) inside the coronary arteries (blood vessel supplying blood to the heart) the CABG procedure aims to clear the obstruction.

In this surgery, the cardiac surgeon will use a healthy vein or artery (usually from the patient’s leg) to act as a replacement for the blocked coronary artery. This grafted blood vessel is connected to bypass the obstructed portion of the original coronary artery and restore normal circulation of blood in the heart.

Heart Valve Replacement surgery
This is an innovative and precise cardiac surgical treatment procedure. This surgery is required to replace a faulty heart valve and prevent the blood from flowing back in to the portion of the heart it has exited.

To treat a faulty valve, the cardiac surgeon will advise repairing the original valve or to replace it with an artificial valve implant. The artificial valve implant is made with biological material as well as some artificial substances.

A minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery involves the cardiac surgeon making a small incision (1-2 mm) into the abdomen. A catheter (small and flexible tube) is inserted into the abdomen and guided to the heart through the blood vessels. The cardiac surgeons will use advanced imaging techniques to guide the catheter to the malfunctioning heart valve.

The catheter has an inflatable surgical balloon attached at the far end. When the catheter is precisely guided and stationed over the malfunctioning heart valve, the surgeon will gently inflate and deflate the balloon several times. This allows the malfunctioning heart valve to become wider and allow improved blood flow. This is an efficient minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedure which is used worldwide today for its efficiency in treatment and faster recovery.

Arrhythmia treatment
When the heartbeats are not regular and normal, then the person is suffering from a type of arrhythmia. Initially, the doctor will attempt medicinal drugs to improve the condition, however, if these fail, then the doctor may advise cardiac surgical treatments.

There are various types of cardiac surgical treatments for arrhythmia, such as:

  • Pacemaker – This is an artificial electrical implant device which is surgically implanted under the patient’s skin of the abdomen or the chest. Fine wires help connect the pacemaker device to the four chambers of your heart. The device emits low-energy electrical impulses to the heart through the connecting wires that help the heart to beat in a normal rhythm.
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) – This is an advanced surgical implant device which is comparatively smaller than a pacemaker and implanted under the skin of the chest or abdomen. Fine electrical wires connect the device to the chambers of the heart. The smart sensor in the ICD detects abnormal heart rhythm and activates immediately restore it to normal level.
  • Maze surgery – This is an innovative cardiac surgery. In this, the cardiac surgeon will create artificial paths for the electrical signals of the heart to travel across better. It is also known as ‘Atrial Fibrillation’ and is most useful in treating severe forms of arrhythmia.

Aneurysm repair
An aneurysm is seen in the form of an abnormal bulge in the wall of the artery or in the heart muscles. This is usually seen as a result of weakening of the artery walls. The pressure exerted by the flowing blood inside it causes the weakened portion of the artery to bulge out significantly. If left unnoticed and untreated for long enough, this aneurysm risks rupturing (breaking) and result in fatal hemorrhage (internal bleeding).The cardiac surgeon uses an artificial patch or tissue graft to reinforce the weakened portion of the artery wall and prevent the aneurysm from rupturing.

Heart transplant
A heart transplant is one of the biggest cardiac surgeries. This involves the cardiac surgeon removing a malfunctioning heart and replacing it with an implanted healthy donor heart.

This is an extensive cardiac surgery and is mostly the last resort to treat serious cardiac conditions (such as last-stage heat failure). It is advised when other alternate treatment methods have proven unsuccessful in treating the condition.

Understanding Pericarditis

Pericardial disease or pericarditis is an inflammation of any of pericardial layers. Pericardium is a thin double-walled fibroserous sac that surrounds the heart and consists of:

  • Fibrous layer – the most superficial pericardial layer.
  • Serous layer – the inner layer which in its turn is divided into outer parietal and internal visceral layers.
  • Pericardial fluid – the lubricating serous fluid located in the pericardial cavity between the parietal and visceral layers. It serves to reduce the friction of the heart during cardiac contractions.

Pericardium performs an important function by protecting the heart and maintaining its adequate position so that it could work properly.


In most cases pericarditis develops as a complication of an underlying disease. Since it’s an inflammatory condition, it might seem that it could be the consequence of an infectious disease. However, there are different types of pericarditis depending in its cause:

  • Pericarditis caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic or fungal infections. The most common infectious organisms include streptococcus, Epstein-Barr virus, Candida fungi, toxoplasma, echinococcus.
  • Pericarditis provoked by autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma.
  • Traumatic pericarditis that results from severe injuries or trauma in the chest area. Sometimes it can develop after a surgical intervention in this area.
  • Pericarditis developing due to tumors located directly on the pericardial layers or in the adjacent areas.
  • Pericarditis associated with serious metabolic disorders such as Addison’s disease.

The most common causes of pericarditis include rheumatism and tuberculosis. Besides, the provoking factors for pericarditis are myocardial infarction, endocarditis, allergic reactions, and radiation therapy.


Since this pathology usually develops as a complication of other diseases, it lacks specific clinical symptoms; however, depending on the type, pericarditis symptoms include any of the following:

  • Piercing or sharp pain in the middle or left side of the chest that can spread to one or both shoulders
  • Attacks of heart palpitations
  • Fever
  • Fast or irregular heart rate
  • Swelling of ankles, legs or feet
  • Breathlessness
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Dry cough


The goals of pericarditis treatment involve:

  • Relieving symptoms
  • Treating the underlying conditions
  • Preventing complications

Treatment methods and its duration are determined by the cause that provoked inflammation and complications, if any. Once experiencing first symptoms of pericarditis, one should seek medical advice as soon as possible.

Complications and prognosis

In general, pericarditis is considered a disease with a benign outcome since timely qualified treatment leads to a complete recovery in the majority of patients. However, in rare case severe pericarditis can cause serious complications:

  • Cardiac tamponade is caused by too much fluid being collected in the pericardium. It’s a dangerous condition that prevents adequate cardiac contractions and leads to a dramatic decrease in blood pressure.
  • Chronic constructive pericarditis, a rare disease that needs time for development. It causes the formation of scar-like tissue throughout the pericardium, which makes it stiff thus preventing the heart from functioning properly.

CAD: Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease (CAD) and Ischemic heart disease (IHD) are synonyms and includes a bunch of disease like stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.

Coronary heart disease develops when the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart itself gets blocked due to the cholesterol or other substances gets deposited on the inner side of the blood vessels called the plaque, this narrowing of arteries is called atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis. If it takes place in one of the major heart supplying arteries then it causes heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

It reduces the elasticity of the blood vessels or narrows the inside area restricting the normal flow of the blood. It leads to the deficiency of oxygen in the heart muscles and causes chest pain also called angina.

Angina can be of two types:

Stable angina is the chest pain which occurs regularly with different activities. Unstable angina is when angina changes its intensity, also it can lead to myocardial infarction.

CAD weakens the blood muscles and leads to reduced functioning of heart in pumping the blood into the body, this is called heart failure. This also develops irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia.

Sometimes the plaque ruptures, gets stuck up in the artery somewhere and totally blocks the blood flow leading to oxygen cut off from that particular area causing permanently damaged heart muscle or scarring of them.

Causes: It is caused due to the cholesterol deposition on the inner lining of the blood vessels of the heart muscles.

Symptoms: Initial detection of the disease is done through its symptoms which are:
• shortness of breath (dyspnea)
• chest pain (discomfort in the chest and increasing into travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw)
• sweating
• nausea
• indigestion
• heartburn
• weakness

At risk: People with risk of getting IHD are/with:
• hypertensive
• smokers
• diabetic
• obese
• high blood cholesterol
• High resting heart rate
• Depression and stress
• Kidney disease
• Family history
• lack of exercise
• poor diet
• excessive alcohol intake
• 40 years old men and women are at great risk of developing this disease.

Diagnostic test: There are many test which help in the diagnosis of CAD:
• ECD or EKD: To measure electrical activity, rate and regularity of heartbeat.
• Chest X-ray: Pictures the heart, lungs and other organs of the chest.
• Echocardiogram: Ultrasound waves are used to picture the heart.
• Exercise stress test (EST): While walking on the treadmill, heart rate is measured.
• Cardiac catheterization: Checks the blockage in the heart arteries by inserting a thin, flexible tube through an artery in the groin, arm or neck to reach the heart to collect blood samples and to inject dye.
• Coronary angiogram: Injected dye is detected via X-rays point out the blocked areas in the arteries.

Prevention: To keep the disease at bay people need to control with medication and keep:
• Blood pressure
• Diabetes
• Cholesterol
• Proper diet
• Regular exercise
• Less alcohol intake

Management: Changes in the lifestyle is very helpful in living fit and healthy. Medications which help in managing the disease includes:
• Antiplatelet like aspirin
• Statins
• Beta blockers
• Calcium antagonists
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
• Nitroglycerin.

Some procedures are also done to increase the inner width of the arteries like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) like coronary stent and angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).